16 Nov 2020 Type 1 IFN

Mon, 11/16/2020 - 14:07

Dear colleagues,

As you can see in attachment I prepared a slide show on the state of the art about type 1 IFN and SARS-CoV-2.  The cited papers can be found on

  1. SARS-CoV-2 is sensitive to type 1 IFN in cell culture, both as pre-treatment, but also after infection (Ref 1-3)
  2. The induction of type 1 IFN and interferon-stimulated genes (ISG) by SARS-CoV-2 (and other CoV) is lower than with other viruses (Ref 2)
  3. Many SARS-CoV-2 gene products interfere with the induction of IFN or with subsequent signaling and generation of ISG (Ref 4)
  4. Exceptional cases of genetic defects in IFN pathways or IFN-auto-antibodies have recently been described, underlying severe COVID, sometimes in rather young individuals (Ref  5,6).
  5. In the “general” population, a more relative defect in type 1 IFN production has been associated with (progression to) severe disease and hyper-inflammatory cytokine profile (Ref 4, 7).
  6. An age and/or chronic disease associated deficit in the production of type 1 IFN by plasmacytoid dendritic cells has been described.  This condition has not only negative consequences for the direct antiviral effects, but, indirectly also on many other aspects of immunity, innate (e.g.NK and macrophages) and adaptive (e.g. cytolytic T cell function) (Ref 8-11).
  7. Type 1 IFN treatment, either subcutaneously or by nebulization, is on trial with beneficial or no clear effect in COVID (Ref 12-14).      

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